Managing Cotton Insect Pests in Thryvon Cotton: What you need to know
Presented by: Dr. Angus Catchot
This talk will address expectations of Thryvoncotton control of thrips and tarnished plant bugs in the Midsouth region and offer insight to efficacy on these two pest and management options in the future.
S-score: A Method for Characterizing Seed Size of Cotton Varieties
Presented by: Fred Bourland
Increased lint yields of cotton varieties over recent years have often been accompanied by increased lint percentages and decreased seed size. Small seed size may be associated with low seed and seedling vigor and can contribute to ginning issues. In contrast, large seed size may be associated with thin seed coats and lower lint yields. Medium sized seed with increased weight of lint per seed should be favored. The Seed-score (S-score)is a method which attempts to normalize weights of seed and lint per seed into a single index with penalties for both high and low seed weights and for low lint per seed values. Varieties were found to produce relatively consistent S-score values over locations and years, and were the major source of variation for this index.
Cotton stands: How low can we go?
Presented by: Ray Benson
In the past, non-uniform seed placement and variable seed quality necessitated high cotton seeding rates. Our current precision planters and typically high seed quality provide opportunities to decrease seeding rates and lessen planting costs. Over three years, we have evaluated seeding rates of 1.5 to 4.5seed per row foot in northeast Arkansas, and found little variation in yield or maturity. Seeding rates may be reduced to as few as 1.5seed per row foot without adverse consequences, as long as long skips are not present.
Can We Reduce Inputs with Improved Soil Heath Without Reducing Yield?
Presented by: Bill Robertson Ph.D.
The Research Verification Sustainability Program has demonstrated the effectiveness of improving soil health on positively impacting various soil health parameters in Arkansas and its impact on yield. In dry year economic benefits are great with as much as a 10% increase in yield and a $0.09 reduction in cost per pound of production. In a wet year the yield improvements are greatly diminished.Improvements in soil health are seen in both wet and dry years. These improvements consistently reduceaproducer environmental footprint which is key to meeting the goals of the US Cotton Industry to supply Brands and Retailers the sustainably produced fiber. Widespread adoption of practices to improve soil health will not occur based solely on a yield response. Foradoption to occur, producers must utilize the improved relationship of their crop with soil microbes. An educational and demonstration program to improving producer confidence in reducing or eliminating inputs without sacrificing yield is necessary to reduce production costs to achieve sustainable improvements in profitability as we strive to provide the fiber Brands and Retailers have committed to source.
Soil Health Demonstration Results in Cotton and Conservation on the Farm
Presented by: Matt Fryer and Wes Kirkpatrick
Matt Fryer -Soil health practices like no-till and cover crops go hand in hand with conserving natural resources. On-farm demonstrations were implemented in Arkansas comparing cover crops and no-till to conventional production practices aimed at increasing producer profitability. Components of comparison included: bulk density, aggregate stability, soil nematode populations, in-season moisture sensor data, water infiltration rates, yield, and economics.
Wes Kirkpatrick–Years of cotton, corn, and soybean production with volatile commodity prices forces producers to always be looking for ways to increase profitability, either by decreasing input costs or increasing yields. Practices implemented on Rondo Farms to increase profitability will be presented.
The Seed is Where It’s At
Presented by: Dr. Steve M. Brown, Extension Cotton Agronomist, Auburn University
Since the introduction of Bt cotton in the mid-1990s and premium seed treatments in 2006, seed have become increasingly important because of the associated management options and costs. Seed now determine not only genetic potential for yield and fiber quality but alsopest management traits, with an ever increasing part of the overall crop budget. We’ll provide an overview of research and observations related to seed handling, seeding rates and row spacing.
Evaluation of irrigation practices and drainage in Mississippi cotton production systems
Presented by: Dr. Brian Pieralisi, Extension Cotton Specialist, Mississippi State University
Farmers across Mississippi are continuously exploring sustainable technologies and practices while remaining profitable. There are a variety of tools to help guide growers in agronomic decision making. In addition to irrigation, poor drainage is another issue reducing yield for Mississippi cotton growers. Many growers across the state have expressed interest in drain tile to use as a water management tool.
Managing field variability in West Tennessee Cotton
Presented by: Tyson Raper & Bob Walker
Variability within and across West Tennessee cotton fields provides several management opportunities. Yield potential within this region can change substantially based on landscape position, soil type, erosion, nutrient status, etc. Producers often choose to increase the efficiency of each input within these management zones; failure to maximize the efficiency of each input can lead to insufficient or excessive seeding rates; improper selection of varieties; applications of lime, N, P, K and S; applications of plant growth regulators; need for insecticides; and challenges defoliating and opening plants in different management zones with very different leaf characteristics, amount of leaf left on each plant, and percentages of open bolls. Variable applications of lime, P and K have become quite common. A few producers have been using other methods to push into variable applications of N and plant growth regulators. While pivots are the most common source of irrigation in cotton, row water is used on a portion of the acres and subsurface drip is used on a handful of acres. Mr. Bob Walker, a cotton producer in Fayette County, TN, farms variable ground around Longtown Gin. Mr. Walker tackles variability in cotton fields from a multi-faceted approach; over the years, he has managed within field variability with variable rate applications of lime, P, K and N. Mr. Walker also runs overhead, row and subsurface drip on his operation. During this session, Mr. Walker and Dr. Tyson Raper will discuss their experiences and research conducted on these topics.
Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cotton
Presented by: Gaylon Morgan, Cotton Incorporated
A significant change in varieties (yield potential and seed size), cultural practices (cover crops, reduced tillage, etc.), and additional understanding of N mineralization have changed over the past 30 years. Nitrogen response is always of interest to growers, because of the input cost and balancing act required to optimize N availability to optimize yields without causing rank growth. As a result, hundreds of N rate studies have been conducted. However, the vast majority of these trials focus solely on cotton yield and quality, and did not account for the variations in soil type, environmental conditions, cropping systems (tillage, rotation, tillage, cover crop, etc.), irrigation, or pre plant residual nitrates. As a result, the results are confounded and have not identified the optimum rate that should be applied on a given specific farm and cropping systems, including cover crops. Additionally, N recommendations for cotton vary tremendously across the Cotton Belt, where some are yield based, some credit soil residual nitrate, and others are quite generic. Additional research that better quantifies the various biotic and abiotic factors impacting plant available N is needed to accurately predict the amount of N that is needed to balance cotton yield with the detriments of too much nitrogen, such as rank growth and higher harvest-aid expenses. This research also has the potential to improve plant available N predictions and lead to site-specific applications of N. Improved N use efficiency will also improve the environmental sustainability of cotton by substantially decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. A Beltwide study at 15+ locations in 2020 and 2021 were conducted to further the understanding of N availability in cotton and to refine N recommendations. Results from this study will be presented.
50 Years of Evolution in Cotton Insects 1972-2022
Presented by: Dr. Ronald H. Smith, Professor Emeritus, Auburn University
A major evolution has occurred in cotton insects over the past 50 years. The key or major target pests have changed from the tobacco budworm and boll weevil to the bug complex and sucking pests. Management tools have shifted from insecticides such as DDT, Toxaphene, methyl parathion and pyrethroids to the neonicotinoids, spinosyns and diamides. Two notable events have played a significant role in the cotton IPM evolution. They were the introduction of genetically altered Bollgard cotton and the eradication of the boll weevil.
Rice Market Outlook –The Swings in Supply and Demand
Presented by: Dennis DeLaughter
The large swings in ending stocks from excessive to adequate levels continues as we head into 2022as does concerns surrounding Covid-19 as we head into flu season. For the rice market, questions as of this writing are regarding milling yields in the area of supply, Iraq, and Central America in the area of demand and farming cost increases when it comes to 2022 acres and next year’s market price. These are dome of the questions we will look at in our presentation regarding the swings in supply and demand for rice.
Nitrogen Management Considerations in Flood and Furrow Irrigated Rice
Presented by: Dr. Jarrod T. Hardke, Rice Extension Agronomist, University of Arkansas
Nitrogen is still one of the largest, and most beneficial, expenses in rice production. Too much of a good thing can be a bad thing, and a good thing at the wrong time can be a bad thing. Reviewing strategies to manage and maximize nitrogen inputs can bring positive results to rice growers yields and bottom line.
New Technologies will Expedite Rice Breeding Efforts
Presented by: Dr. Steve Linscombe, USA Rice Federation
Technologies developed recently will facilitate and expedite the delivery of new rice varieties to U.S. producers. Marker Assisted Selection has been researched for a number of years but has reached the point where it is functional and cost effective for use in rice breeding and genetics activities. CRISPR gene editing technology is reaching the point where it has utility in rice breeding efforts but the acceptance by end-users is still in question. Recent innovations in equipment developments has facilitated rice quality evaluation.
Weed Management in Midsouthern U.S. Rice Production
Presented by: Dr. Jason A. Bond, Mississippi State University
Weed control is one of the primary inputs for rice production in the midsouthern U.S. Many challenges face rice growers in the area. Among these are off-target herbicide movement, herbicide resistance, and new production systems.