Diagnosing And Managing Root And Stem Diseases Of Soybean
Dr. Tom Allen
Extension Plant Pathologist, Mississippi State University
Root and stem diseases are commonly occur on an annual basis in soybean production systems. In the Mid-southern United States, sudden death syndrome (SDS), red crown rot, Phytophthora root and crown rot, southern blight, and stem canker all occur on an annual basis. Proper disease diagnosis can aid farmers in determining the specific variety choices for subsequent crop seasons. However, in most cases, variety choice can aid in reducing the potential yield losses associated with each of the aforementioned diseases. Many of the root diseases produce similar symptoms, but field history can sometimes aid in the proper diagnosis. In addition to the diseases listed above, a new soybean root disease, called taproot decline, has been widely observed throughout the soybean production areas in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, the Missouri bootheel, and Mississippi. At present, little information is available on taproot decline; however, a group of researchers continues to work to determine the specific organism involved in causing the disease as well as the overall distribution. Future research directions will determine specific management practices to reduce the yield losses associated with the recently described disease.
Improving Soil Health With Cover Crops
Arkansas Farmer: Soybeans, Cotton, Corn, Rice
The whole biology of cover crops contributes to soil health and crop production in general, according to Robby Bevis. Cover crops help with water infiltration, weed suppression, holding nutrients in the soil and stopping erosion. A fifth generation farmer, Bevis raises 1,500 acres of soybeans, 1,000 acres of corn and 250 acres of rice. He tries to no-till his crops, but also says he uses a "have-to" till process when needed. "That's what a lot of people call no-till," he says. This year was his 21st crop, having worked with his father in 1995.
Bevis holds a bachelor's degree in ag business from Arkansas State University.
Weed Control Challenges In Midsouth Soybean Production
Dr. Jason A. Bond
Weed Scientist, Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center
Soybean weed management systems in the midsouthern United States rely almost entirely on chemical control tactics. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds require modification of herbicide programs. Nine species in Mississippi have evolved resistance to glyphosate, so it is imperative to formulate recommendations based on the most effective weed management systems. The control of some species, which may not be resistant to currently used herbicides, may be impacted by efforts to control GR weed species.
Bed Longevity For Corn And Soybean No-Till Production On Silty Clay Loam Soils
Dr. Normie Buehring
Professor Agronomy, MSU
Ten year (2006-2015) results will be presented on the number of continuous years corn and soybean no-till production on old beds can be successful on a silty clay loam bottomland soil in a non-irrigated environment. Results indicated corn is more sensitive to bed height than soybeans. Soybeans are most sensitive to bed height when wet soil conditions prevailed during the seedling emergence/early growing season.
With Farm Size Increasing, Coggin Finds No-Till Is The Only Way To Manage
As his father's farm increased in size and Tommy took over the reins, he found it was necessary to use no-till methods to cover the 2,000 acres he farms. He will discuss his experience in raising 1,500 acres of soybeans and 500 acres of corn in the hill country of northern Mississippi with a no-till system begun nearly 20 years ago. "With no-till we can actually work more acres with less work," he says. "When Roundup Ready beans came on, it was simpler to no-till. We're running into issues now with herbicide-resistant weeds, and we have to do a better job in how we use chemicals. It's a big problem, but not something we can't fix. We can't do away with weeds, we have to learn to control them."
Coggin has been farming all his life, and he took over main management of the farm 30 years ago. His father, Buddy Coggin, who started the farm in 1973, still helps with the chores. Tommy holds a dual bachelor's degree from Mississippi State University in ag economics and business administration.
A Consultant's And Farmer's Perspective On Growing Crops In Louisiana
Dr. Fred Collins
Louisiana Consultant / Farmer: Soybeans, Cotton, Corn, Milo and Wheat
Collins will discuss several topics that relate to crop production in Louisiana. The past year heavy flooding, 20 inches of rain during harvest season, created unique issues for his customers and his own operation. Many crops were lost in the field, leaving hopes for the corn harvest and late beans. Most of the sweet potato yield was lost.
Collins received his Ph.D. in entomology from LSU and his master's degree from the University of Florida. He has been consulting since 1983 and started farming in 1989. He raises 850 acres of cotton, 690 acres of corn, 780 acres of soybeans, and 470 acres of milo.
Cover Crop Mixtures For Soybean Production
Dr. Dennis Delaney
Extension Specialist - Soybeans & Cons. Cropping Systems, Auburn University
Cover crop seed mixtures have recently been promoted in the southeastern U.S., with claims of greater benefits than single species. However, there is little data from the southeastern U.S. on whether soybean producers should use cover crop mixtures, and how to manage them. Trials were conducted at two locations in Alabama using different combinations and ratios of winter cover crops seeding rates. Twelve combinations were tested, using cereal rye, radish, and crimson clover. Cover crops were sampled in the spring and soybeans no-till planted. Measurements included biomass of cover crops, weed suppression, and growth and yield of soybeans.
Soybean Yield Response To Row Spacing, Seeding Rate, And Planting Date
Dr. Trent Irby
Extension Soybean Specialist, MSU
Soybean planting practices in the Mid-South consist of a wide range of row spacings and seeding rates. Furthermore, environmental conditions in this region typically allow a very wide window of planting date possibilities. Factors such as soil texture and environmental conditions at the time of planting may influence the optimum combination of row spacing and seeding rate for maximum yield potential to be obtained. Experiments were conducted during 2016 at three locations in Mississippi to evaluate yield response of soybean to three different row spacings and six seeding rates planted during April, May, and June.
Irrigation Triggers For Soybeans Using Soil Moisture Sensors
Mississippi Consultant: Soybeans, Cotton, Corn, Peanuts, Milo
King will advise farmers about the learning curve when beginning to use soil moisture sensors. He will outline the trigger points and also some of the exceptions to the rules that might challenge farmers in making the decision. "There are normal conditions that help farmers determine moisture needs in soybeans, but normal is somewhat of a geometric term, and there also are the exceptions to the rules," he advises.
King is a second generation consultant whose father has operated a consulting firm for over 30 years. This is his 17th crop, and he has been working full time in consulting since 2006. He holds an accounting degree from Mississippi College in Clinton, Miss, as well as a crop consulting license with the Bureau of Plant Industry of Mississippi.
Soybean - Planting Dates, Seeding Rates, And P&K Application Timings For Minimum tillage Production
Dr. Ronnie Levy
Associate Professor - Extension Specialist, LSU AgCenter
How early can I plant? How much seed should I plant? When should I apply my P and K fertilizer? While environmental conditions play a huge role in success, minimum tillage soybeans can tip the bushel in the producers favor. Factors which affect root growth such as soil compaction, hard pans, and waterlogging reduce mineral and water transport to the shoot, thus having an adverse effect on growth. Minimum tillage can reduce these growth reduction stresses. In short, stress effects on soybean yield can be understood by realizing how these factors interfere with the positive effect of light interception on growth.
Insect Pest Management In Soybeans
Dr. Gus Lorenz
Distinguished Professor, Extension Entomologist, Lonoke Research & Extension Center
The importance of insect pests in soybeans grown in the Midsouth is extremely variable from year to year due in large part to environmental conditions. For example, hot, dry years favor many caterpillar pests such as the soybean podworm and the beet armyworm; and when drought conditions occur, these pests usually are abundant. Many other caterpillar pests, such as the velvetbean caterpillar and the soybean looper, may cause problems following migrations from southern areas, particularly in concurrence with winds out of the Gulf region where they are a common problem. Generally, insect pressure is greater in the south than compared to northern states due to warmer temperatures and closeness to the aforementioned migration sources.
Production practices also have an impact on the occurrence of pest insects in soybeans. For example, insects such as the Dectes stem borer and grape colaspis usually occur at damaging levels only in soybean monocultures. Row width can also affect insect pest pressure. Soybean fields which fail to achieve canopy closure by bloom are the ones most susceptible to damage by the soybean podworm. Planting date, tillage and adjacent crops can also have an impact on pest species occurrence. The Early Soybean Production System (ESPS), which is the planting of indeterminate varieties (MG III and IV) in April, has gained increasing popularity in the region. Fields planted to the ESPS are susceptible to pests such as the foliage-feeding bean leaf beetle and the pod-feeding stink bug complex. Often, because of limited acreage in this system, such fields are a virtual "oasis" as a preferred host for insect pests which normally would be found primarily on wild hosts.
A soybean field will contain millions of insects comprising a multitude of different species, both pests and beneficial insects, in a growing season. Proper insect identification and knowledge of the injury associated with pest species are the keys to any soybean insect pest management program that utilizes a sound Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. Secondly, we must be able to determine the level of pest insects in the field by sampling and assessing the threat of the pest(s) to the crop using such strategies as percent defoliation, stand loss, as well as insect numbers.
Finally, it is important to determine what management tactics are available and whether or not they are economically feasible. Recent advances by entomologists are helping provide growers with thresholds for insect pests of soybean that take into account not only the number of insects found, but the value of the crop and the cost of control.
Soybean Success With Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® Technology
J. Darrin Malone
CPAg-CCA/Field Dev. Technical Consultant, DuPont Crop Protection
Area Manager, DuPont Pioneer
DuPont Pioneer® brand soybeans and Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® technology are a next-gen trait combo designed to allow management of the toughest weeds, even glyphosate-resistant weeds.
In this session, learn the latest in weed management solutions that will enable the use of a low-volatile dicamba, such as DuPont™ FeXapan™ herbicide plus VaporGrip™ Technology pending EPA and state approvals) for cleaner fields.
Best management practices, stewardship guidelines, field results and more will be shared in the session.
Fungicide Focus: Getting The Best ROI
Dr. Bond McInnes
Fungicide and Nematicide Technical Manager, DuPont Crop Protection
Howard L. Anderson
Independent Crop Consultant
In a recent survey to 1000 farmers about what crop input provided the best return on investment, a timely fungicide application was what they said gave them the best ROI.
Last season, DuPont Crop Protection partnered with more than 40 Southern Crop Consultants to run fungicide program trials in corn and soybean. In the session, you will hear the results of those trials, hear firsthand experiences from one of the consultants and get news you can use to help get better ROI in 2017.
When It All Goes Wrong
Arkansas Farmer: Soybeans, Cotton, Corn, Wheat, Rice
Matt Miles can relate to those times when things go very wrong despite all your best efforts. He will discuss some situations of his own when the end was not what he expected it to be, showing slides of some of those situations including weather and temperature information as well as different treatments he's used.
Matt is a third generation farmer. He has been farming with Sherrie since 1989, and recently was joined by son, Layne, and his wife, Ryane. This large family operation the past year consisted of 2,900 acres of soybean, 350 of which was double cropped with wheat; 2,500 acres of corn, 3,100 acres of cotton, and 1,400 acres of zero grade rice. Both Matt and Sherrie hold bachelors degrees from University of Arkansas at Monticello, Matt in Ag Business and Sherrie in business management. Layne and Ryane received their bachelors degrees in Plant and Soil Science and Communications in May 2016 at the University of Arkansas at Monticello.
Insect, Weed And Disease Management In Mississippi Soybeans
Tucker Miller, III
Mississippi Consultant, Miller Entomological Services Inc.
Miller will focus on the control measures on weeds, insects and diseases that consultants recommend to growers in Mississippi. Best management practices are the key to combatting these pests and growing high yielding soybeans.
He consults on 25,000 acres each of cotton, 10,000 acres of soybeans and 5,000 acres of corn, as well as 1,000 acres each of peanuts and vegetables. He grew up on a farm where cotton, soybeans and rice were raised; on his own 2,000 acres, he raises soybeans, wheat and corn, but also raises cotton some years.
Miller has been consulting for 47 years and has a Bachelor's Degree in agronomy and a Master's Degree in pest management from Mississippi State.
Does The Time Of Year Make a Difference In Soil Sample Results?
Dr. Larry Oldham
Extension Soil Specialist, MSU
Soil test-based nutrient management is fundamental to economical and environmentally sound crop management. Soil test results vary between spring and fall sampling dates due to climate conditions and crop growth. Fertilizer prices have been variable since the 2008 market shift, thus improved certainty about proper rates can impact profitability. The implications of variability of monthly results, since April, 2011, from eight locations will be discussed.
A Consultant's Perspective On Combatting Soybean Disease
John Lucas Pitre
Louisiana Consultant: Soybeans, Corn, Cotton, Rice, Sugar Cane, Wheat Milo
A wet summer in 2016 brought flooding and contributed to the disease pressure in soybeans in Louisiana. Pitre will draw on his experience with the conflict of fighting these diseases in his presentation.
Pitre has been consulting for 10 years, and manages a small research farm. He holds a masters degree in plant pathology from Mississippi State.
Cover Crops In Mid-South Row Crop Production: What We Have Learned In Arkansas
Dr. Jeremy Ross
Extension Agronomist - Soybeans, Associate Professor, University of Arkansas
With the increasing interest in the use of cover crops in Mid-South row crop production, current and practical production recommendations are needed for the use of these cover crops. Several factors are driving the growing use of cover crops, some of which include improved irrigation efficiency, reduced weed pressure, less soil loss due to erosion, and improved soil health. The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture has been conducting research on cover crops within several commodity production systems for the last four years. Findings from this research will be presented, and current productions recommendations for cover crop establishment and termination will be discussed.